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Stahlschlussel Key To Steel 2007: A Practical Guide to Using this Book for Steel Selection and Ordering



Stahlschlussel Key To Steel 2007: A Comprehensive Guide to Steel Grades and Standards




Introduction




Steel is one of the most widely used materials in the world, with applications ranging from construction and infrastructure to manufacturing and engineering. However, not all steels are created equal. There are thousands of different steel grades and standards, each with its own composition, properties, and specifications. How can you find the right steel for your project or product?




Stahlschlussel Key To Steel 2007l



That's where Stahlschlussel Key To Steel 2007 comes in. This book is a comprehensive reference guide that provides detailed information on more than 70,000 steel grades and trade names from over 300 steelmakers and suppliers in 25 countries. It also includes cross-references to more than 1,000 national, international, regional, and company standards.


Stahlschlussel Key To Steel 2007 is an essential tool for anyone who works with steel, whether you are a designer, engineer, buyer, seller, researcher, or student. It will help you to identify, compare, select, and order the best steel for your needs. It will also help you to understand the technical terms, abbreviations, symbols, and codes used in steel specifications.


In this article, we will give you an overview of Stahlschlussel Key To Steel 2007 and its features. We will also explain the basics of steel grades and standards, as well as the properties, types, and applications of different groups of steels. Finally, we will show you how to use Stahlschlussel Key To Steel 2007 to compare different steel grades and standards from around the world.


Steel Grades and Standards: An Overview




Before we dive into Stahlschlussel Key To Steel 2007, let's first understand what steel grades and standards are and how they are classified.


A steel grade is a designation that indicates the chemical composition, mechanical properties, and processing methods of a specific type of steel. For example, AISI 1040 is a steel grade that contains 0.4% carbon and has a tensile strength of 620 MPa. A steel grade can also have a trade name, which is a brand name or a trademark used by a steelmaker or a supplier to identify their product. For example, COR-TEN is a trade name for a weathering steel grade that has high corrosion resistance.


A steel standard is a document that specifies the requirements and test methods for a certain steel grade or product. A steel standard can be issued by a national, international, regional, or company organization that sets the rules and guidelines for the steel industry. For example, ASTM A36 is a steel standard issued by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) that covers carbon structural steel shapes, plates, and bars.


There are many different ways to classify steel grades and standards, depending on the criteria and purpose. One of the most common ways is to group them according to the main chemical elements or alloying elements in the steel composition. For example, steels can be classified into carbon steels, alloy steels, stainless steels, tool steels, etc. Another way is to group them according to the main application or function of the steel product. For example, steels can be classified into structural steels, engineering steels, tool steels, etc.


In the following sections, we will introduce some of the main groups of steel grades and their properties, types, and applications. We will also list some of the main standards organizations and their codes for steel grades.


Carbon Steels: Properties, Types, and Applications




Carbon steels are steels that contain only carbon as the main alloying element, with no more than 1.65% manganese, 0.6% silicon, and 0.6% copper. Carbon steels are the most common and widely used type of steels, accounting for about 90% of all steel production in the world.


The main characteristic of carbon steels is their carbon content, which determines their hardness, strength, ductility, and weldability. Generally speaking, the higher the carbon content, the harder and stronger the steel, but the lower the ductility and weldability. The lower the carbon content, the softer and weaker the steel, but the higher the ductility and weldability.


Carbon steels can be divided into four main types according to their carbon content: low-carbon steels (also called mild steels), medium-carbon steels, high-carbon steels (also called carbon tool steels), and ultra-high-carbon steels (also called cast iron).


Low-carbon steels have a carbon content of less than 0.3%. They are soft, ductile, easily formed and welded, and have low strength and hardness. They are used for applications that require low strength and high formability, such as sheet metal, pipes, wires, nails, etc.


Medium-carbon steels have a carbon content of 0.3% to 0.6%. They are harder and stronger than low-carbon steels, but less ductile and weldable. They are used for applications that require moderate strength and wear resistance, such as gears, shafts, axles, rails, etc.


High-carbon steels have a carbon content of 0.6% to 1%. They are very hard and strong, but less ductile and weldable. They are used for applications that require high strength and hardness, such as cutting tools, knives, springs, etc.


Ultra-high-carbon steels have a carbon content of more than 1%. They are very hard and brittle, and have low ductility and weldability. They are used for applications that require extreme hardness and wear resistance, such as cast iron, crucible steel, etc.


Some of the main standards organizations and their codes for carbon steel grades are:



Organization


Code


Example


American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)


A four-digit number that indicates the carbon content and the alloying elements


AISI 1040


Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)


A four-digit number that indicates the carbon content and the alloying elements


SAE 1040


American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


ASTM A36


International Organization for Standardization (ISO)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


ISO 630-2


European Committee for Standardization (CEN)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


EN 10025-2


Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


JIS G3101


Chinese National Standards (GB)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


GB/T 700


Alloy Steels: Properties, Types, and Applications




Alloy steels are steels that contain one or more alloying elements, such as manganese, silicon, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, etc., in addition to carbon. Alloy steels are designed to improve the properties of carbon steels, such as strength, hardness, toughness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, etc.


The main characteristic of alloy steels is their alloying elements, which determine their microstructure, phase transformation, and mechanical properties. Generally speaking, the more alloying elements, the more complex and diverse the steel properties. The alloying elements can be classified into two groups: austenite-forming elements and carbide-forming elements.


Austenite-forming elements are elements that increase the stability of austenite, which is a face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure of iron. Austenite is a high-temperature phase of steel that can transform into different phases at lower temperatures, such as ferrite, pearlite, bainite, or martensite. Austenite-forming elements include nickel, manganese, cobalt, nitrogen, etc. They can increase the ductility, toughness, and corrosion resistance of steel.


Carbide-forming elements are elements that combine with carbon to form hard and stable carbides in steel. Carbides are intermetallic compounds that have high hardness and wear resistance. Carbide-forming elements include chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, etc. They can increase the strength, hardness, and wear resistance of steel.


Alloy steels can be divided into two main types according to their carbon content: low-alloy steels and high-alloy steels.


Low-alloy steels have a carbon content of less than 0.25% and a total alloying element content of less than 5%. They are similar to carbon steels, but with improved properties due to the addition of small amounts of alloying elements. They are used for applications that require high strength and toughness, such as structural components, pipelines, machinery, etc.


High-alloy steels have a carbon content of more than 0.25% or a total alloying element content of more than 5%. They are different from carbon steels, and have distinctive properties due to the presence of large amounts of alloying elements. They are used for applications that require special properties, such as corrosion resistance, wear resistance, high temperature resistance, etc.


Some of the main standards organizations and their codes for alloy steel grades are:



Organization


Code


Example


American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)


A four-digit number that indicates the carbon content and the alloying elements


AISI 4140


Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)


A four-digit number that indicates the carbon content and the alloying elements


SAE 4140


American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


ASTM A387


International Organization for Standardization (ISO)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


ISO 683-1


European Committee for Standardization (CEN)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


EN 10083-1


Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


JIS G4105


Chinese National Standards (GB)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


GB/T 3077


Stainless Steels: Properties, Types, and Applications




Stainless steels are steels that contain at least 10.5% chromium as the main alloying element, along with other elements such as nickel, molybdenum, titanium, etc. Stainless steels are known for their excellent corrosion resistance, which is due to the formation of a thin and protective oxide layer on the surface of the steel.


The main characteristic of stainless steels is their chromium content, which determines their corrosion resistance and microstructure. Generally speaking, the higher the chromium content, the higher the corrosion resistance, but the lower the ductility and weldability. The lower the chromium content, the lower the corrosion resistance, but the higher the ductility and weldability.


Stainless steels can be divided into five main types according to their microstructure: austenitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels, martensitic stainless steels, duplex stainless steels, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels.


Austenitic stainless steels have a face-centered cubic (FCC) crystal structure of iron and contain at least 16% chromium and 6% nickel. They are non-magnetic, ductile, and have high corrosion resistance and formability. They are used for applications that require high corrosion resistance and low temperature resistance, such as chemical equipment, food processing equipment, medical devices, etc.


Ferritic stainless steels have a body-centered cubic (BCC) crystal structure of iron and contain 10.5% to 27% chromium and little or no nickel. They are magnetic, brittle, and have moderate corrosion resistance and formability. They are used for applications that require high oxidation resistance and low cost, such as automotive exhaust systems, kitchenware, etc.


Martensitic stainless steels have a body-centered tetragonal (BCT) crystal structure of iron and contain 10.5% to 18% chromium and little or no nickel. They are magnetic, hard, and have low corrosion resistance and formability. They are used for applications that require high strength and hardness, such as cutting tools, knives, surgical instruments, etc.


Duplex stainless steels have a mixed microstructure of austenite and ferrite, and contain 18% to 28% chromium and 4.5% to 8% nickel. They are magnetic, strong, and have high corrosion resistance and formability. They are used for applications that require high strength and corrosion resistance, such as oil and gas pipelines, chemical plants, etc.


Precipitation-hardening stainless steels have a microstructure that can be hardened by heat treatment, and contain 15% to 18% chromium and 3% to 5% nickel. They are non-magnetic, tough, and have moderate corrosion resistance and formability. They are used for applications that require high strength and hardness, such as aerospace components, gears, valves, etc.


Some of the main standards organizations and their codes for stainless steel grades are:



Organization


Code


Example


American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)


A three-digit number that indicates the type of stainless steel


AISI 304


Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)


A five-digit number that indicates the type of stainless steel


SAE 30304


American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


ASTM A240


International Organization for Standardization (ISO)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


ISO 15510


European Committee for Standardization (CEN)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


EN 10088-1


Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


JIS G4303


Chinese National Standards (GB)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


GB/T 20878


Tool Steels: Properties, Types, and Applications




Tool steels are steels that are specially designed for making tools that work under high stress, high temperature, or high wear conditions. Tool steels contain various alloying elements, such as tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, cobalt, etc., that enhance their hardness, wear resistance, toughness, hot hardness, etc.


The main characteristic of tool steels is their hardness and wear resistance, which determine their performance and durability in cutting, shaping, forming, or machining other materials. Generally speaking, the higher the hardness and wear resistance, the longer the tool life, but the lower the toughness and machinability. The lower the hardness and wear resistance, the shorter the tool life, but the higher the toughness and machinability.


Tool steels can be divided into six main types according to their chemical composition and heat treatment: water-hardening tool steels, shock-resisting tool steels, cold-work tool steels, hot-work tool steels, high-speed tool steels, and special-purpose tool steels.


Water-hardening tool steels are carbon steels that can be hardened by quenching in water. They have high hardness and wear resistance, but low toughness and hot hardness. They are used for applications that require low cost and simple heat treatment, such as hammers, chisels, punches, etc.


Shock-resisting tool steels are low-carbon steels that contain molybdenum, tungsten, or vanadium. They have high toughness and impact resistance, but low hardness and wear resistance. They are used for applications that require high shock loading and low abrasion, such as jackhammers, crowbars, rivets, etc.


Cold-work tool steels are medium-carbon steels that contain chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, or vanadium. They have high hardness and wear resistance at room temperature, but low hot hardness and toughness. They are used for applications that require high surface quality and dimensional accuracy, such as dies, punches, shear blades, etc.


Hot-work tool steels are medium-carbon steels that contain chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, or vanadium. They have high hot hardness and wear resistance at elevated temperatures, but low toughness and corrosion resistance. They are used for applications that require high thermal stability and resistance to softening or cracking, such as forging dies, extrusion dies, hot shear blades, etc.


High-speed tool steels are high-carbon steels that contain tungsten, molybdenum, cobalt, or vanadium. They have very high hardness and wear resistance at high cutting speeds and temperatures, but low toughness and corrosion resistance. They are used for applications that require high productivity and efficiency, such as drills, taps, milling cutters, etc.


Special-purpose tool steels are steels that have specific properties or characteristics for certain applications. They include mold steels, maraging steels, powder metallurgy steels, etc. They are used for applications that require special properties, such as plastic molds, high-strength alloys, sintered parts, etc.


Some of the main standards organizations and their codes for tool steel grades are:



Organization


Code


Example


American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the type of tool steel


AISI W1


Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the type of tool steel


SAE W1


American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


ASTM A681


International Organization for Standardization (ISO)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


ISO 4957


European Committee for Standardization (CEN)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


EN ISO 4957


Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


JIS G4401


Chinese National Standards (GB)


A letter followed by a number that indicates the product type and the grade


GB/T 1298


Comparison Table of Steel Grades and Standards




Now that we have learned about some of the main groups of steel grades and their properties, types, and applications, let's see how we can use Stahlschlussel Key To Steel 2007 to compare different steel grades and standards from around the world.


Stahlschlussel Key To Steel 2007 provides a comparison table of steel grades and standards, which is a useful tool for findi


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