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The Appography Group

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Robert Anderson
Robert Anderson


Mountain goat populations are highly sensitive to severe winter conditions and human harvest, particularly when harvest rates of female mountain goats are high. In addition, mountain goat populations are often small and geographically isolated. As a result, mountain goat population trends throughout Alaska vary considerably from place to place and from year to year.


Winter snowfall is one of the most important factors influencing mountain goat (and all ungulates) populations in Alaska. High snowfall can result in substantially reduced survival of adult mountain goats. Since adult survival is the most important influencing population dynamics, severe winters can result in significant population declines. In the Lynn Canal area, detailed research has documented a 45% decline during a 5-year period dominated by several severe winters. Since mountain goats have relatively low reproductive rates, it often takes several years for populations to rebound once winter conditions moderate.

A farmer went to a market and purchased a wolf, a goat, and a cabbage. On his way home, the farmer came to the bank of a river and rented a boat. But crossing the river by boat, the farmer could carry only himself and a single one of his purchases: the wolf, the goat, or the cabbage.

The first step that must be taken is to let the goat go across the river, as any other actions will result in the goat or the cabbage being eaten. When the farmer returns to the original side, he has the choice of taking either the wolf or the cabbage across next. If he takes the wolf across, he would have to return to get the cabbage, resulting in the wolf eating the goat. If he takes the cabbage across second, he will need to return to get the wolf, resulting in the cabbage being eaten by the goat. The dilemma is solved by taking the wolf (or the cabbage) over and bringing the goat back. Now he can take the cabbage (or the wolf) over, and finally return to fetch the goat.

Do not allow horses or other equines access to feeds containing Monensin. Ingestion of Monensin by horses has been fatal. Monensin-medicated cattle and goat feeds are safe for use in cattle and goats only. Consumption by unapproved species may result in toxic reactions. Do not exceed the levels of Monensin recommended in the feeding directions, as reduced average daily gains may result. Do not feed to lactating goats.

However, horny goat weed may not work for everyone, and using it can result in side effects or adverse interactions with other medications you may be taking. Before starting an herbal supplement like horny goat weed, consider talking with a medical professional for advice.

Home Community McComb takes home GCH market goat and GCH sheep prizes Surrounded by family members and the 2022 Pratt County Fair Goat Show judge, Kadi McComb sets up her Grand Champion Market Goat that she took from birth to the top of the line this year. Courtesy photo

who do I call or contact if I want to stop the goat abuse I see going on by a local rancher? He has goats in both Sacramento County and Solano County in California. I have tried Animal control, the employees clearly are not educated or informed about goats or the proper care of them I also tried Fish & Wildlife, again no results.

It's also a great idea to report your home test results to your local health department, if that's an option, so that they can track local cases. Some states and cities also offer services like deferred rent or mortgage assistance for those who test positive.

Nubian Goat Photographic Print2007 "The Nubian breed originated in England as a result of breeding two different pure bred goats, one goat being of Indian descent. Color is not a distinguishing characteristic of this breed as they can be most any color; it is the head with its facial profile between the eyes and the muzzle being strongly convex (Roman nose) that distinguishes it amongst others. The ears are pendulous and should extend at least one inch beyond the muzzle. Nubians were a relatively new breed when Mrs. Sandburg decided to add them to her herd as an experiment. She simply liked their look and the fact that their milk had a high percentage of butterfat. She preferred the taste of Nubian milk. She believed her breeding program would do well with the Nubians; since they were a newer breed, she anticipated seeing improvement in this breed sooner than she had with Toggenburgs. Seeing consistency with their milk production she anticipated wouldn't come for another one-hundred years and noted: "It will take another hundred years of breeding before Nubians will approach the consistency of Toggs and Saanens in production. But there is a special fascination about them, so I'll always have a few Nubians in our Herd. We do have some that are doers as well as lookers-but you can't be at all sure of the next generation!" Carl Sandburg Home National Historic Site

Hi! My goat was ill almost two or three weeks ago. First i get her some home remedies and she was somewhat fit but then she became ill again and left eating anything. Then I go to vet, he told, she had got pneumonia and gave me some injections and some medicines . My goat get her health and started eating . But the problem is , she is not eating to her fill . For three days i have been giving her two panadols but no positive results . Plz tell me what to do ? What could be possible cure for it?

In addition to his love for animals, President Abraham Lincoln, our 16th President, was known for his giving spirit. He allowed his sons, Tad and Willie, to keep as many pets as they wished. The result was a menagerie that included rabbits, turkeys, horses, and even two goats, Nanny and Nanko. In fact, Nanny and Nanko even rode with President Lincoln in the Presidential carriage. One special animal in the Lincoln White House was Jack the turkey. Jack originally was on the Lincoln's dinner menu, but Tad became fond of the bird and pleaded with his father to spare Jack's life. President Lincoln relented, and Jack became part of the Presidential household. On Election Day 1864, while the Civil War raged close to Washington, D.C., a special booth was placed on the White House grounds so that soldiers serving nearby could vote. President Lincoln, his private secretary Noah Brooks, and Tad were watching from an upstairs window when they saw Jack strut out among the voters. "Why is your turkey at the polls? Does he vote?" Lincoln asked his son. "No," Tad answered, "he's not of age yet."

Among all the ruminants, goats are only the animals which can eat and consume almost all types of food. So, if you are planning to start a goat farming business, then you don't have to think much about what to feed goat. Because you can raise goats by providing them all types of natural, home or commercially formulated goat feed. Nowadays goat farming is becoming very popular because of it's multifunctional utility. We can get many goat products like meat, milk, skins, fiber, manner etc. from them. But the profitable production from goat farming business mostly depends on proper feed supply and management systems. Proper feed management includes providing nutritious food, vitamins, minerals, energy, protein etc. So, before starting goat farming business it is a must to learn about how to and what to feed goat. Read flowing step by step goat feed management system.

When an animal passes watery droppings many times a day it has diarrhoea.Animals with diarrhoea lose water and salt from their bodies. They become weak, thin and can die. It is common in young animals and kills many.Constipation occurs when the animal cannot defecate or it passes droppings with difficulty.Learning objectivesAfter studying this unit you should know:1 How to recognise diarrhoea and constipation.2 What causes diarrhoea and constipation.3 Diarrhoea in different animals.4 Treatment and control of diarrhoea.5 Treatment of constipation.Recognising diarrhoeaDiarrhoea is a condition in which animals pass watery droppings (faeces) many times a day. The droppings are loose, runny and smelly and are a different colour from normal. Droppings can become dark green, dark brown or reddish black in colour because of blood in it. In some cases, e.g. rinderpest, the animal has diarrhoea which has a very bad smell.Causes of diarrhoeaDiarrhoea may continue for one or two days and then stop. This type of diarrhoea is caused by: The wrong feed was given to the animal. A sudden change in the animal's feed. Feeding silage can sometimes cause diarrhoea. Feed was old, rotting or fermenting. Diarrhoea can be caused by germs (a high body temperature may occur). Infection with parasites can cause diarrhoea which sometimes contains blood.Diarrhoea in ruminantsDiarrhoea in cattle, sheep, goats and buffaloes can be caused by: Germs and internal parasites, especially in young animals on pasture. Germs infecting the intestines of young animals (body temperature not usually elevated). Overfeeding calves with poor quality powdered milkIf cattle have diarrhoea and also have mouth lesions (not normal) you must ask your veterinarian for advice.Diarrhoea in sheep and goats can result from: Infection with a germ (body temperature may be elevated). Internal parasites in young animals on pasture.Young animals can show diarrhoea after weaning.Diarrhoea in horsesThis can be caused by: Infection with germs (body temperature usually is elevated). Antibiotics or drugs which were given for another problem. Stress conditions (animal is not well kept and is disturbed) can result in diarrhoea. A one week old foal may develop diarrhoea when its mother comes into heat (oestrus).Diarrhoea in pigs Diarrhoea in the pig can be caused by infection with germs (body temperature may be elevated) and internal parasites.Diarrhoea in camelsThis can be the result of: Too much fresh green feed causing green diarrhoea. Parasites infecting the animal causing dark brown or dark red diarrhoea. Male camels in the rut can have diarrhoea.Diarrhoea in chickens and ducks White diarrhoea disease of chickens is caused by a germ (bacteria) which passes from the mother to her young. In adult birds it causes greenish-brown diarrhoea but in the young bird the diarrhoea is white in colour. Diarrhoea containing blood can be caused by the small parasites called coccidia (see Unit 55) which infect the gut.Diarrhoea in rabbitsThe rabbit's droppings should be separate, round, fairly firm and greyish brown in colour. Any change is a sign of a health problem. Diarrhoea can be caused by: Changing the feed from dry to green feed. Bad feed, either too wet, too cold or contaminated with chemicals. Disease caused by germs (body temperature will usually be elevated). Coccidia can cause diarrhoea in young animals.TreatmentDiarrhoea accompanied by fever is caused by germs. If the diarrhoea continues for more than two days and the body temperature has gone up (see Unit 4) you should ask your veterinarian for help. The animal may be treated with antibiotics (see R6, R7 Annex 1) or by sulpha drugs (see R9 Annex 1).Diarrhoea will cause the animal to lose water and salts and if this is allowed to continue the animal can die. If you cannot get veterinary help you can give the animal a home treatment of rehydration fluid. To make rehydration fluid mix six teaspoons of sugar and half a teaspoon of salt with 1 litre of clean, warm water. Give this as a drench (500 ml for sheep or goats) four times a day for 3 days. Larger animals require more fluid, 5% of body weight 2 times per day.TreatmentConstipationConstipated animals cannot defecate or they pass very hard droppings with difficulty. The animal with constipation is easy to spot.Constipation is treated by giving an enema. Warm soapy water is injected into the rectum. Epsom salts or commercially produced oils (see R22 Annex 1) can be given by mouth to relieve constipation.ConstipationUnit 69: Salivation and mouth problemsSaliva is produced by glands in the mouth and helps in the chewing and swallowing of food.Excessive salivation, when saliva shows as dripping, threads or froth around the mouth, is not normal.Excessive salivation accompanied by mouth lesions and fever is a sign of disease.Learning objectivesAfter studying this unit you should know:1 Recognise excessive salivation.2 Recognise choking (feed stuck in the gullet).3 Know the types of mouth lesions.4 Blisters in the mouth.5 Treatment of mouth problems.Excessive salivationExcessive salivation accompanied by chewing movements may be caused by a number of different things. Open the animal's mouth and check what is causing the problem. It may be due to: Foreign bodies (thorns, nails, pieces of feed) in the mouth or between the teeth Teeth problems and abscesses Poisoning Pieces of feed stuck in the oesophagus (gullet) causing chokingChoke (feed in the gullet)This happens when large or dry pieces of feed become stuck in the gullet (oesophagus). It is common in cattle and can occur in horses. The obstruction must be removed.Choke in ruminants causes bloat (tympany). The best way to remove the obstruction is to push upward toward the mouth from the outside on the left side of the neck.Another way is to press hard on the top of the mouth with your fingers to make the animal open its mouth. Then pour a small amount (10 - 20 ml) of oil into the mouth of the animal or pass a stomach tube down the gullet (see Annex 3).Salivation accompanied by mouth lesionsSometimes an animal produces excessive saliva which drips or froths from the mouth. This is because of a lesion in the mouth or on the tongue or lips. Mouth lesions can be: Red spots and blisters (watery fluid filled bags of skin) in the mouth The skin comes off from some areas leaving red tissue showing The tongue is swollenExcessive salivation, mouth lesions and fever are signs of infectious disease and you should get your veterinary officer to look at the animal immediately.Rinderpest and foot and mouth disease (see Unit 25) cause excess salivation and mouth lesions. Other diseases also cause these signs.Dress lesions of the mouth with antiseptic (see R 3 Annex 1). Your veterinarian may recommend antibiotic injections for several daysUnit 70: FeverIt is important to know the body temperature when checking the health of an animal. Use your thermometer to take the body temperature if you think an animal is sickIf the body temperature is higher than normal (see Unit 4) the animal has a fever. Fever is one of the commonest signs of an infectious disease.A small rise in body temperature is called a slight fever and a large rise is called a high fever. When the body temperature is lower than normal the animal has a subnormal temperature which could be caused by starvation, bleeding or dehydration.Fever, like diarrhoea, causes the animal to lose a lot of water and salts from the body.Learning objectives After studying this unit you should know:1 When an animal has fever. 2 What causes fever. 3 What to do with a fevered animal.FeverYou should know the appearance of the healthy animal (see unit 5). If you believe that an animal is not healthy, talk to the owner or keeper to discover all that you can about it. Examine the animal and use your thermometer to take the body temperature.If the body temperature is higher than normal the animal has a fever. The increase in the temperature tells you how great a fever the animal has.The normal body temperature of sheep is 39C. If the temperature is 40C or 41 C then the sheep has a slight fever. If the temperature is from 41.5C to 42C then the animal has a high fever. A temperature of 38C is subnormal.For all animals a rise of 1C or 2 C in body temperature is a slight fever while any temperature more than 2C above normal is a high fever.The cause of feverFever, especially high fever, is the result of an infectious disease caused by germs (see Unit 6). When some types of germs get inside the body of an healthy animal, it will become sick. Animals can get germs from: Breathing in germs from the air. Dirty water and bad feed. Dirty animal housing from which droppings and urine have not been cleaned. Milk, saliva, urine or blood from sick animals. Fly bites and injuries.Treatment of feverIf an animal has a fever, separate it from the others and keep it in a shady, cool place with plenty of clean, fresh water. If the animal has a slight fever and shows no diarrhoea, constipation, discharge from the eye or mouth or any other signs of ill health, it should be given some good feed. Keep a check on it for a day or two to see if the fever drops.If the animal has a high fever and diarrhoea, a discharge or other signs of ill health you should give it only clean fresh water and if possible get veterinary help. If you cannot get veterinary help for an animal with a high fever you can give it an antibiotic or sulpha drug by injection or by the mouth for at least three days to kill the germs (see R6, R7, R9, R10 Annex 1).Watch closely for signs of improvement over the next two days. If the animal does not return to normal (eating, drinking and movement) you will have to contact the veterinarian to discover the problem and to how to treat it.Unit 71: Coughing and breathing problemsA cough is a strong, forceful expiration (breathing out) through the mouth.A sneeze is a short, forceful expiration through the nose.Difficulties in breathing and very fast breathing are other problems of the respiratory system and are not normal conditions.Breathing problems accompanied by fever and discharge from the nose are very bad signs and mean that the animal has an infection.Learning objectivesAfter studying this unit you should know:1 When an animal has a cough.2 Sneezing.3 Discharge from the nose.4 Treating animals with respiratory problems.CoughingA cough is a strong forceful expiration (see Unit 3). Coughing is caused by: Infectious diseases of the lung or windpipe. Parasites in the lung. Fluid or mucous in the lung or windpipe. A medicine (drench) going into the lungs instead of through the gullet to the stomach.Pigs can cough as a result of being given dusty (powdery) feed.SneezingA sneeze is a strong, forceful expiration through the nose. It can be caused by an infection of the inside of the nose or from maggots of the nasal fly (see Unit 64).Difficulties in breathingInfection of the lungs or windpipe will cause the animal to have difficulty in breathing. It will make noises as it breathes.A blockage of the windpipe caused by a foreign body or an abscess will also cause difficulties in breathing.Fast (rapid) breathingFast breathing is caused by an infectious disease and is associated with a fever. It is easily noticed by looking at the movements of the chest as the animal breathes.TreatmentIf an animal coughs, and there is no discharge from the nose or a sign of fever, you should suspect a foreign body, dust in the windpipe or lungs or lungworms as causes of the problem. Check for any foreign body or if necessary treat for lungworms (see R11, R12 Annex 1).A cough accompanied by a fever and discharge from the nose and eyes is caused by an infection. You should ask your veterinarian for help but if this is not possible you can give the animal antibiotics or a sulpha drug (see R6, R7, R9, R10 Annex 1) for three or more days.Sneezing when


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