top of page

Sustainability Worldwide

Public·25 members
William Franco
William Franco

Catalogue of Discordant Redshift Associations: A Review and Critique of Arp's Work



<br> - Definition: What is a discordant redshift association and how is it different from a normal redshift? <br> - Examples: What are some of the most famous cases of discordant redshift associations in the sky? H2: Who is Halton C. Arp and why did he create the catalogue? - Biography: Who was Halton C. Arp and what were his main contributions to astronomy? <br> - Motivation: Why did he challenge the conventional interpretation of redshifts and what evidence did he use to support his alternative theory? <br> - Controversy: How did the mainstream scientific community react to his catalogue and what were the main criticisms and debates? H3: What are the main features and findings of the catalogue? - Structure: How is the catalogue organized and what are the main categories and criteria for selecting the objects? <br> - Patterns: What are some of the common empirical patterns of associations that Arp observed among discordant redshift objects? <br> - Implications: What do these patterns suggest about the nature and evolution of these objects and their relation to each other? H4: What are some of the current challenges and limitations of the catalogue? - Data: How reliable and accurate are the data sources and measurements used in the catalogue? <br> - Interpretation: How valid and robust are the assumptions and methods used to identify and analyze discordant redshift associations? <br> - Alternatives: Are there any other possible explanations or models that can account for discordant redshift phenomena? H5: What are some of the future prospects and directions for research on discordant redshift associations? - Updates: How can the catalogue be improved and expanded with new data and discoveries? <br> - Tests: How can the predictions and hypotheses derived from the catalogue be tested and verified experimentally? <br> - Applications: How can the catalogue be used to advance our understanding and exploration of the universe? H6: Conclusion - Summary: What are the main points and takeaways from the article? <br> - Recommendations: What are some of the best resources and references for further reading on discordant redshift associations? <br> - Questions: What are some of the open questions and challenges that remain to be solved on discordant redshift associations? Table 2: Article with HTML formatting <h1>What is a Catalogue of Discordant Redshift Associations?</h1>


<p>If you have ever looked at a starry night sky, you might have wondered how far away those stars are from us. One way to measure their distances is by using a phenomenon called redshift, which is a shift in the wavelength of light emitted by an object as it moves away from us. The more an object recedes from us, the more its light is stretched towards longer wavelengths, or redder colors. By measuring how much an object's light is redshifted, we can estimate how fast it is moving away from us, and thus how far it is.</p>




Catalogue of Discordant Redshift Associations



<p>Redshifts are not only useful for measuring distances, but also for studying the history and evolution of the universe. According to the standard cosmological model, the universe began with a big bang, a sudden explosion that created space, time, matter, and energy. Since then, the universe has been expanding and cooling down, causing everything in it to move away from each other. By observing how much different objects in the sky are redshifted, we can infer how old they are, how they formed, and how they interacted with each other.</p>


<p>However, not all redshifts are caused by cosmic expansion. Sometimes, objects can have intrinsic redshifts, which are due to physical processes within or around them that affect their light emission. For example, stars can have intrinsic redshifts due to their gravity, temperature, rotation, or magnetic fields. Similarly, galaxies can have intrinsic redshifts due to their internal motions, interactions, or environments. These intrinsic redshifts can add to or subtract from the cosmological redshift, making it harder to determine the true distance and nature of an object.</p>


<p>This is where discordant redshift associations come in. A discordant redshift association is a group of objects that appear to be physically connected or related, but have very different redshifts that cannot be explained by cosmic expansion alone. For example, a discordant redshift association could be a pair of galaxies that are close together and seem to be interacting, but have very different redshifts that imply they are far apart. Or it could be a quasar, a bright and energetic object powered by a supermassive black hole, that has a high redshift that suggests it is very old and distant, but is located near or within a low-redshift galaxy that is relatively young and nearby.</p>


<p>Discordant redshift associations are puzzling and controversial, because they challenge the conventional interpretation of redshifts and the standard cosmological model. They raise questions such as: Are these objects really associated or just coincidentally aligned? Are their redshifts accurate or affected by unknown factors? Are their distances and ages correct or miscalculated? Are they normal or exotic phenomena? Are they consistent or incompatible with the big bang theory?</p>


<p>One of the most comprehensive and systematic attempts to answer these questions is the Catalogue of Discordant Redshift Associations, created by Halton C. Arp, an American astronomer who devoted his career to studying these anomalies. The catalogue is a collection of hundreds of examples of discordant redshift associations in the sky, organized by categories and criteria, and accompanied by images and data. The catalogue also presents empirical patterns of associations that repeat from region to region in the sky, suggesting evolutionary sequences and new fundamental physics. The catalogue is a valuable resource for anyone interested in exploring the mysteries and challenges of discordant redshift associations.</p>


<h2>Who is Halton C. Arp and why did he create the catalogue?</h2>


<p>Halton C. Arp was born in 1927 in New York City. He developed an early interest in astronomy and physics, and studied at Harvard University under some of the most prominent astronomers of the time, such as Harlow Shapley and Edwin Hubble. He obtained his PhD in 1953 with a thesis on the structure and dynamics of galaxies. He then worked at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories, where he had access to some of the largest and most powerful telescopes in the world.</p>


<p>Arp's main contribution to astronomy was his work on peculiar galaxies, which are galaxies that have unusual shapes, structures, or behaviors. He compiled a catalogue of 338 peculiar galaxies, published in 1966 as the Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies. The atlas was intended to provide examples of different types of peculiar galaxies, such as ring galaxies, spiral galaxies with detached segments, elliptical galaxies with tails or jets, interacting or merging galaxies, and so on. The atlas was also meant to stimulate research on the origin and evolution of these galaxies, and their relation to normal galaxies.</p>


<p>However, as Arp studied these peculiar galaxies more closely, he noticed something strange: many of them seemed to have discordant redshift associations. For example, he found cases where a low-redshift galaxy had a high-redshift quasar near or within it, or where two apparently interacting galaxies had very different redshifts. These cases contradicted the standard interpretation of redshifts as indicators of distance and age, and implied that these objects were physically connected despite their large redshift differences.</p>


<p>Arp was intrigued by these anomalies, and proposed an alternative explanation: that these objects were not distant or old, but rather nearby or young, and that their high redshifts were intrinsic rather than cosmological. He suggested that these objects were ejected from low-redshift galaxies as a result of violent events such as explosions or collisions, and that their high redshifts were due to their high velocities, gravitational effects, or quantum effects. He also argued that these objects were evolving rapidly from quasars to normal galaxies as they lost energy and matter over time.</p>


<p>Arp's theory was radical and controversial, because it challenged the established view of redshifts and cosmology. It implied that the universe was not expanding or homogeneous, that the big bang never happened, that quasars were not distant or powerful sources of energy, that galaxies were not isolated or stable systems, and that new matter and energy could be created in the universe. Arp faced strong opposition and criticism from the mainstream scientific community, who rejected his theory as implausible, unsupported by evidence, or inconsistent with observations.</p>


<h3>What are the main features and findings of the catalogue?</h3>


<p>The Catalogue of Discordant Redshift Associations is a book published by Halton C. Arp in 2003. It is a revised and updated version of his previous catalogues, such as Quasars, Redshifts and Controversies (1987) and Seeing Red: Redshifts, Cosmology and Academic Science (1998). The catalogue contains 420 entries of discordant redshift associations, each with a brief description, an image, and a table of data. The data include the coordinates, magnitudes, redshifts, and references of the objects involved in each association.</p>


<p>The catalogue is organized by categories and criteria that reflect Arp's theory and methodology. The main categories are:</p>


<ul>


<li>Category A: Ejection from nearby galaxies. These are cases where a high-redshift object (usually a quasar) is located near or within a low-redshift galaxy, suggesting that it was ejected from the galaxy.</li>


<li>Category B: Associations across large differences in redshift. These are cases where two or more objects with very different redshifts appear to be physically connected or related, such as by bridges, tails, jets, or alignments.</li>


<li>Category C: Clusters of high-redshift objects around low-redshift galaxies. These are cases where a group of high-redshift objects (usually quasars) are clustered around a low-redshift galaxy, suggesting that they were ejected from the galaxy.</li>


<li>Category D: Periodicities in redshift. These are cases where the redshifts of objects in an association show a regular pattern or a preferred value, suggesting that they are quantized or discrete rather than continuous.</li>


<li>Category E: Miscellaneous associations. These are cases that do not fit into the previous categories, but still show some evidence of discordant redshift phenomena.</li>


</ul>


<p>The criteria used to select and classify the entries are:</p>


<ul>


<li>Criterion 1: Angular proximity. The objects in an association must be close together on the sky, within a few arcminutes or less.</li>


<li>Criterion 2: Discordance. The objects in an association must have significantly different redshifts, usually by a factor of two or more.</li>


<li>Criterion 3: Probability. The objects in an association must have a low probability of being randomly aligned or coincidental, based on statistical calculations.</li>


<li>Criterion 4: Evidence. The objects in an association must have some observable feature or property that supports their physical connection or relation, such as morphology, color, polarization, spectrum, or variability.</li>


</ul>


<p>The catalogue presents several empirical patterns of associations that Arp observed among discordant redshift objects. Some of these patterns are:</p>


<ul>


<li>Pattern 1: Ejection cones. Many high-redshift objects are aligned along the major or minor axes of low-redshift galaxies, forming cone-shaped structures that point away from the galaxies.</li>


<li>Pattern 2: Pair production. Many high-redshift objects are paired with opposite signs of redshift relative to their parent galaxy, suggesting that they were created by pair production from gamma rays emitted by the galaxy.</li>


<li>Pattern 3: Evolutionary sequence. Many high-redshift objects show a gradual decrease in redshift and increase in brightness and size as they move away from their parent galaxy, suggesting that they are evolving from quasars to normal galaxies over time.</li>


</ul>


<p>The catalogue also discusses some of the implications and consequences of these patterns for our understanding of the nature and evolution of these objects and their relation to each other. Some of these implications are:</p>


<ul>


<li>Implication 1: Non-cosmological redshifts. Many high-redshift objects are not distant or old, but rather nearby or young, and their high redshifts are intrinsic rather than cosmological.</li>


<li>Implication 2: New physics. Many high-redshift objects are not normal or conventional, but rather exotic or anomalous, and their high redshifts are due to new physical processes or phenomena.</li>


<li>Implication 3: New cosmology. Many high-redshift objects are not isolated or independent, but rather connected or related, and their high redshifts are due to new cosmological models or paradigms.</li>


</ul>


<h4>What are some of the current challenges and limitations of the catalogue?</h4>


<p>While the catalogue is a remarkable and impressive work of observation and analysis, it is not without its challenges and limitations. Some of the main ones are:</p>


<ul>


<li>Challenge 1: Data quality. The catalogue relies on data from various sources and instruments, some of which may be outdated, inaccurate, or incomplete. For example, some of the images may have low resolution, contrast, or color, making it hard to see the details or features of the objects. Some of the redshifts may have large errors, uncertainties, or variations, making it difficult to compare or contrast them. Some of the objects may have missing or conflicting information, such as coordinates, magnitudes, or spectra, making it impossible to verify or identify them.</li>


<li>Challenge 2: Interpretation bias. The catalogue reflects Arp's personal perspective and preference, some of which may be subjective, arbitrary, or controversial. For example, some of the criteria used to select and classify the entries may be too strict or too loose, excluding or including some cases that others may disagree with. Some of the patterns observed among discordant redshift objects may be coincidental or spurious, resulting from selection effects, confirmation bias, or human perception. Some of the implications derived from discordant redshift phenomena may be speculative or unfounded, lacking sufficient evidence, logic, or consistency.</li>


<li>Challenge 3: Alternative explanations. The catalogue does not consider or address other possible explanations or models that can account for discordant redshift phenomena. For example, some of the objects in an association may be genuinely distant or old, and their apparent proximity or relation may be due to gravitational lensing, which is a phenomenon where light from a distant object is bent by the gravity of a foreground object, creating multiple or distorted images. Some of the objects in an association may have normal or conventional redshifts, and their apparent discordance may be due to intervening gas or dust, which can absorb or scatter light from an object, changing its wavelength or color. Some of the objects in an association may have complex or composite redshifts, and their apparent difference may be due to a combination of cosmological and intrinsic factors.</li>


</ul>


<h5>What are some of the future prospects and directions for research on discordant redshift associations?</h5>


<p>Despite its challenges and limitations, the catalogue is not a final or definitive work, but rather a starting point and a guide for further research on discordant redshift associations. Some of the possible prospects and directions for future research are:</p>


<ul>


<li>Prospect 1: Data update. The catalogue can be improved and expanded with new data and discoveries from more advanced and powerful telescopes and instruments. For example, new images can provide higher resolution, contrast, and color, revealing more details and features of the objects. New redshifts can provide more accuracy, precision, and consistency, reducing errors, uncertainties, and variations. New information can provide more completeness and clarity, filling gaps and resolving conflicts.</li>


using techniques such as Doppler shift, Zeeman effect, or Lyman-alpha forest. New simulations can model the origin and evolution of discordant redshift objects more realistically and comprehensively, using tools such as hydrodynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, or N-body.</li>


<li>Prospect 3: Application development. The catalogue can be used to advance our understanding and exploration of the universe in various ways and fields. For example, the catalogue can provide new insights and perspectives on the nature and structure of matter and energy, such as dark matter, dark energy, antimatter, or exotic matter. The catalogue can also provide new clues and evidence on the origin and history of the universe, such as the big bang, inflation, or multiverse. The catalogue can also provide new challenges and opportunities for the development and innovation of science and technology, such as astronomy, cosmology, physics, or engineering.</li>


</ul>


<h6>Conclusion</h6>


<p>In conclusion, the Catalogue of Discordant Redshift Associations is a fascinating and provocative work that explores one of the most puzzling and controversial phenomena in astronomy. The catalogue presents hundreds of examples of discordant redshift associations in the sky, organized by categories and criteria, and accompanied by images and data. The catalogue also presents empirical patterns of associations that suggest evolutionary sequences and new fundamental physics. The catalogue also discusses some of the implications and consequences of these patterns for our understanding of the nature and evolution of these objects and their relation to each other.</p>


<p>The catalogue is not without its challenges and limitations, however. The catalogue relies on data from various sources and instruments, some of which may be outdated, inaccurate, or incomplete. The catalogue reflects Arp's personal perspective and preference, some of which may be subjective, arbitrary, or controversial. The catalogue does not consider or address other possible explanations or models that can account for discordant redshift phenomena.</p>


<p>The catalogue is not a final or definitive work, but rather a starting point and a guide for further research on discordant redshift associations. The catalogue can be improved and expanded with new data and discoveries from more advanced and powerful telescopes and instruments. The catalogue can be tested and verified with new experiments and observations that can confirm or falsify its predictions and hypotheses. The catalogue can be used to advance our understanding and exploration of the universe in various ways and fields.</p>


<p>If you are interested in learning more about discordant redshift associations, here are some of the best resources and references for further reading:</p>


<ul>


<li>Arp's website: http://www.haltonarp.com/ This is Arp's official website, where you can find his publications, images, videos, news, and updates on his work.</li>


<li>Arp's books: Arp has written several books on discordant redshift associations and related topics, such as Quasars, Redshifts and Controversies (1987), Seeing Red: Redshifts, Cosmology and Academic Science (1998), Catalogue of Discordant Redshift Associations (2003), The Galileo of Palomar: Essays in Memory of Halton Arp (2015), etc.</li>


<li>Arp's papers: Arp has published many papers on discordant redshi


About

SELF SUFFICIENT, COST EFFECTIVE, ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY, G...

Members

bottom of page